PRINCIPLES OF ETHICS – Definitions and Explanations | Pakistan Press Foundation (PPF)

Pakistan Press Foundation

PRINCIPLES OF ETHICS – Definitions and Explanations


PRINCIPLES Oxford Definitions Explanation 1


Treating people equally without favoritism or discrimination. Ensuring that one viewpoint/personal opinion is not favored over another while collecting or presenting news and opinions. Equal time is given to different stakeholders with opposing views without suppressing available and relevant facts and/or with a distorted emphasis.




Treating all rivals or disputants equally Diligently seeking out subjects of news to give them the opportunity to respond, avoiding stereotypical representation of said subjects and distinguishing between advocacy and news reporting.Analysis and commentary should be clearly labeled.


The quality or state of being correct or precise Test the accuracy of information from all sources and exercise care to avoid accidental errors. Use information that is independently verifiable and can be attributed to its sources. Where a source seeks anonymity, do not agree without first considering the source’s motives and any alternative attributable source. Conflicts are disclosed and personal gains are avoided.





A situation that gives equal weightage to opposing positions Equal weightage is given to different dimensions of an argument so media consumers can developed their own mindsets or opinions regarding the subject under discussion.


A state in which one is not observed or disturbed by other people – the state of being free from public attention Respect private grief and personal privacy. Mediashould not intrude into private spaces.
Pluralism  A system that recognizes more than one ultimate principle – in which two or more states, groups, principles, sources of authority, etc., coexist Share a story by including all the multiple layers of complexities that reflect the magnitude of human experience. accommodate marginalized voices to prevent domination of a single version.