Human rights in the digital age
Our digitally connected world poses serious challenges to human rights. Internet use and mobile connectivity, low-cost and fast computing systems, and rapid AI advances have, on the one hand, provided new opportunities. But, on the other hand, they present unprecedented challenges to the protections of core human rights.
Modern technologies like Al have a huge potential to violate privacy, polarize societies, and incite prejudice, extremism, racism, hatred, and violence across the globe in a short span of time. Breaches of data security protocols and social media campaigns can create opportunities for blackmail and influence political processes. Defenders of human rights and democracy need to address these challenges as priority.
There is an urgent need to examine the international treaties and conventions that codify human rights to provide robust policy guidelines regarding international cooperation for the protection of human rights in the digital age.
International courts, tribunals, and national courts, for example, should interpret international human rights conventions and national fundamental rights laws to clarify duty of care, sharpen the right to privacy, and ensure rights to speech, religious freedom, and association in the digital context. The vulnerability of women and children need immediate attention. Women experience a higher level of online harassment than men. Children are more exposed to online persecution and sexual exploitation than adults. So, special privacy protection rules should be made for women and children. There should be specific design and data consent standards for online services. The American Children’s Online Privacy Protection Rule of 2013 and the Age Appropriate Design Code announced by the UK in 2019, for example, prescribe such standards for digital services.
Digital technologies have put privacy at risk. AI has tremendously enhanced the possibility of electronic surveillance and interception. Thus, legitimate national security and business interests need to be balanced against a basic right to privacy. How can the latter be ensured without undermining the former? International agencies like the UN should help state parties negotiate and implement data-protection treaties and laws to ensure that governments, non-state actors, and companies cannot misuse the personal information of their citizens.
Reportedly, the 2016 US presidential election and Brexit were shaped by malicious use of digital technology. It is entirely possible that powerful countries and multinational corporations will employ AI to rob the economy of already-poor countries and weaken their national security. In view of the increasing misuse of digital technology in economic and political affairs, the developing countries, in particular, need to raise a voice at regional and international forums for an effective mechanism of cooperation and protection of the developing world.
The UN, state governments, social media companies, and private business must ensure that digital technology is employed for the welfare of humanity in a transparent and responsible manner. AI systems must follow strict ethical standards. It is becoming evident that AI can be used to create discrimination as biases can be fed into algorithms to produce a specific pattern or result. For example, the Al system can be exploited to decide who is eligible for a particular job or entitled for a pertinent public service such as housing loan or healthcare. Therefore, there are ongoing global efforts to make AI developers subject to law and ethical values.
Those who develop and employ Al for political or business or war purposes must be held accountable for their actions. People are held liable for their actions under all legal systems. So, those who design, develop, adapt or deploy AI must also be held responsible for the consequences of their decisions. The liability of these actions becomes more critical when lethal autonomous weapons systems are used in striking violation of international human rights and humanitarian law. The UN secretary-general stated in 2018 that “machines with the power and discretion to take lives without human involvement are politically unacceptable, morally repugnant and should be prohibited by international law”.
As we live in an age of digital interdependence governments, citizens, human rights defenders and AI companies should work together to enhance digital cooperation for the protection of human rights. Common human values like equality, privacy, dignity, freedom, inclusiveness, respect, and sustainability should be preserved. These human values must serve as a beacon to guide our conduct in the digital age.