According to the UN, good governance is consensus-oriented, participatory, follows the rule of law, and is effective, efficient, accountable, transparent, responsive, equitable and inclusive. In the 21st century, many people are still at the threshold of injustice, hunger and malnutrition and lack basic facilities due to faulty administration.
The issues of governance are deep-seated and are multi-faceted. The main problems of our country are over-population, poverty, corruption, political interference, financial indiscipline, inequitable administration of justice, an old style of governance and low investment in education in the public and private sectors, and other sectors of development.
These problems should not be brushed under the carpet, but need some serious discussion. Good governance is the subject, which requires continuous research by the researchers of international repute to upgrade efficiency of institutions by suggesting a series of reforms.
The leader sails the boat of good governance. Notwithstanding, the merits of good governance, good leadership precedes the concept of good governance itself. Being a driving force, a capable, honest and credible leadership is essential to the development process.
Economically speaking, corruption is a cruel tax on investment. The higher this tax, the lower the investment. Especially, when the clouds of hyperinflation hover and the sluggishness of the economy becomes visible in the shape of low output, low employment and low investment, corrupt practices prove even more fatal for the national economy.
As our economic growth rate is not keeping pace with the population growth rate, it is expected that socio-economic conditions will be further aggravated if no timely remedial steps are taken. Though population control is a key determinant of national security, peace and economic prosperity, the results of the population control programmes in the country are not very promising. The prime cause is the lack of operating strategies for tackling the issue in its totality.
Considering illiteracy and early marriages as major causes of population increase, we are engaged in marketing of contraceptives, but not perceiving the fact that the problem is linked to law and order as well. The majority of the people reside in rural areas, and depend upon agriculture. Hence, to control population, security situation in the rural areas must be improved, besides taking other initiatives.
Decentralisation is a powerful weapon to counter the problems of bad governance and regional disparities. As real democracy has not yet taken roots in the political spectrum, the problem of centralisation still persists, which is creating a weaker system of checks and balances at the local levels and promoting red tape. There must be a high degree of autonomy to the district governments. The system of local government following the bottom-up approach was introduced in the country from time to time, but due to lack of political sagacity, it was overturned to its original centralised mode, after wasting billions of public funds to serve the interests of elites.
Public Institutions can work efficiently when their authorities and responsibilities are clearly defined and no institution is allowed to interfere in the affairs of other institution. Nevertheless, employees should be continuously trained and motivated to upgrade the institutional efficiency.