‘772 killed in Sindh tribal feuds in 3 years’
KARACHI: A study on the “Impact of tribal conflicts on economic, social and cultural life in upper Sindh”, conducted in eight districts, including Khairpur, Sukkur, Shikarpur, Ghotki, Larkana, Qambar-Shahdadkot, Jacobabad and Kashmore-Kandhkot, has revealed closure of education and health facilities, displacement of people and above all burdening the women with earning livelihood for the families due to killing of their male members.
Although the incidents of tribal feuds dated back to centuries, the study that covers only last three years from 2010 to 2012, noted that except few women and children, all the casualties were of men.
The study carried by Hassan Nasir of Bhittail Social Welfare Association, Khairpur, stated that tribal conflicts claimed lives of 772 persons including 35 women and 03 children and caused injuries to 548 including 42 women and 06 children during last three years. The district-wise and gender-wise data shows that a total of 734 men; 108 in Khairpur, 86 in Sukkur, 104 in Shikarpur, 94 in Ghotki, 113 in Larkana, 31 in Qambar-Shahdadkot, 17 in Jacobabad and 181 in Kashmore-Kandhkot were killed from 2010. The women killed were 11 in Khairpur, two in Sukkur, 5 in Shikarpur, 8 in Ghotki, two in Larkana, one in Qambar-Shahdadkot, zero in Jacobabad and 6 in Kashmore-Kandhkot. Only three children were killed during the period under report in Khairpur, however killing of over a dozen children were reported in Larkana district after compilation of the report.
The data of injured persons includes 130 men, 6 women and 3 children in Khairpur, 65 men and 15 women in Sukkur, 63 men, two women and one child in Shikarpur, 35 men and 6 women in Ghotki, 50 men in Larkana, 23 men and two women in Qambar-Shahdadkot, 25 men and 03 women in Jacobabad and 109 men, 8 women and two children in Kashmore-Kandhkot.
According to report 37 schools were closed in Ghotki, 88 closed in Khairpur district besides three schools destroyed in Kingri Taluka and 12 schools closed in Shikarpur district due to tribal clashes. The education has suffered a lot due to fear and insecurity among teachers and students. The report noted that secondary education has been affected much as the students couldn’t move out of their homes and villages because the secondary schools are located far from the villages. In Shikarpur districts, the feud between Mahar and Jatoi tribes deprived two generations of the education.
Similar is the case with regard to health facilities, as people from conflict areas cannot move to basis or rural health units. Most of the health units remain closed in conflict zones. The women have to face reproductive health issues and polio campaigns are affected adversely.
In many conflict-hit areas, the people have been displaced, as they had to leave ancestral homes and migrate to safer places. There had been two patterns of migration, one to the villages with majority of same race and the other to different towns of district.
The tribal feuds have also impacted the culture badly, as the panicked people of conflict zones have stopped gatherings at Autaqs (traditional guest houses), holding or attending local festivals and even holding marriage ceremonies in traditional manner. Kalashnikov culture prevails over culture of peace and harmony. The population could be found segregated then before.
The tribal feuds have destroyed the economy of people, as the personal property is either damaged or destroyed, livestock theft and killing incidents increased, loss of property takes place due to migration while the agriculture labor force also decreased due to migration.